For hollow viscus perfomation, Intestinal Obstruction, obstructed Hernia

Emergency Laparotomy Surgeries

A Laparotomy Surgery is performed to treat abdominal organs and diagnose any problems related to them; which include infections and formation of scar tissue within the abdominal cavity.

A laparotomy is used to treat the following condition:

  • Infections caused due to perforated/inflamed bowel
  • Blocked bowel
  • Internal bleeding
  • Treatment of gallbladder
  • Appendicitis
  • Abdominal injuries caused due to trauma
  • Hollow viscus perforation 
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Obstructed hernia

How is the procedure

carried out?

The procedure is performed under the influence of anesthesia, which means once the anesthesia is administered the patient falls asleep and hence will not feel any pain. After this the surgeon makes an incision near the tummy to open the abdomen. Once the abdominal cavity is accessible through the incisions the surgeon then examines the organs in the abdomen and checks any possible defects/irregularities/infections and the immediate measures are taken to repair it.

Dr.Kiran specializes in treating hollow viscus perforation, intestinal obstruction, and obstructed hernia using this technique.

Hollow Viscus perforation: This condition is life threatening with a 30 to 50% mortality rate. The condition is characterized by loss of gastrointestinal wall integrity with subsequent leakage of enteric contents.

Causes for hollow

viscus perforation

Extrinsic bowel obstruction:

  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors
  • Lymphoma
  • Surgical adhesions
  • Hernia
  • Volvulus

Intrinsic bowel obstruction:

  • Bezoar
  • Crohn disease stricture
  • Appendicitis
  • Intraluminal neoplasm

Toxicological issues:

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories
  • Salicylates
  • Acid/alkali ingestions

Loss of gastrointestinal wall integrity:

  • Peptic Ulcer
  • Crohn disease
  • Tumor lysis syndrome

Gastrointestinal ischemia:

  • Mesenteric ischemia
  • Portal vein thrombosis


  • Salmonella typhi
  • Clostridioides difficile
  • Cytomegalovirus



 An intestinal obstruction is caused when a portion of the small or the large intestine is blocked, the blockage might be total or partial and because this there might be hindrance in the process of digestion.

Following are the symptoms of intestinal obstruction:

  • Abdominal pain and diarrhea
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation and abdominal swelling
  • Reduced appetite and inability to pass gas or stools
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Bloating

Following are the causes for intestinal obstruction:

  • Twisting of intestines(volvulus)
  • Pushing of one section of intestine to the next also known as ‘Intussusception’
  • Tumors within the small intestine
  • Objects that are swallowed especially in children
  • Hernias
  • Crohn’s disease etc



An obstructed hernia is a condition in which the tissues have been trapped and it’s commonly known as incarcerated hernia as well. It is a life serious condition because it may lead to intestinal or tissue strangulation.

Following are the symptoms of obstructed hernia:

  • Bloody stools
  • Constipation
  • Darkening of the skin over the hernia spot
  • Fatigue and fever 
  • Inability to pass gas
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Increased heart rate
  • Acute pain which keeps increasing and appears out of nowhere
  • Inflammation around the hernia

All the three conditions: hollow viscus perforation, Intestinal obstruction and obstructed hernia are treated through emergency Laparotomy.



  • After the surgery temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure and wound site are carefully monitored by the doctor to avoid any post-surgery complications.
  • A drain might be inserted at the wound sight.
  • Catheter might be inserted to drain urine as the patient might not be able to move for a few days.
  • Patient is given intravenous fluid as he/she may not be able to eat for a few days.
  • Doctors will prescribe painkillers in order to reduce the pain from the surgical wounds.
  • The patient will be made to do breathing and leg exercises.
  • Till the patient is in the hospital the patient will be given daily wound care and after his/her discharge they will be advised on wound care at home.
  • The patient will be made to walk a day or two post-surgery, as early walking will reduce the risk of blood clots and chest infections.
  • Post-surgery medication is given to you post discharge.

Get In Touch With Us

+91 80508 59585
+91 80508 59585

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    Dr Kiran KJ is an expert surgeon and hands on medical professional, Dr. Kiran K J is an expert in laparoscopic, Bariatric and laser surgeries.

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